Saturday

Italian present tense: -IRE verbs

Regular -IRE verbs, ISC verbs marked with asterisks by ab for viaoptimae.com


Today, we're going to look at the Simple Present Tense and in particular, -IRE verbs: 

Also from this series:  
  (1) How Italian verbs work(Intro to verbs & grammar terms)
  (2) Italian present tense: -ARE verbs
  (3) Italian present tense: -ERE verbs



-IRE verbs are divided into two groups:

The first group is "normal":  drop the infinitive ending (-IRE) and add the present tense -IRE endings:
Present tense -IRE endings in Italian: -o, -i, -e, -iamo, -ite, -ono; by ab for viaoptimae.com



So, if I wanted to conjugate the regular -IRE verb 'dormire' (to sleep) in the first person singular or 'io' it would look like this:


dormire -> dorm -> dormo : dormire -> dorm -> dormo : Conjugation of DORMIRE (to sleep) in Simple Present tense by ab for viaoptimae.com




Dormo 
I sleep

Dormo di lato.
I sleep on my side.


Applying the same conjugation process to all the other subjects, I end up with this chart:


Conjugating an -IRE verb with stem and endings, by ab for www.viaoptimae.com






Dormire (to sleep) Simple Present Conjugation table: io dormo,tu dormi, lui/lei dorme, noi dormiamo, voi dormite, loro dormono; by ab for viaoptimae.com



-Dormi di lato?
Do you sleep on your side?
-Sì, dormo di lato.
Yes, I sleep on my side.


-Dormono di lato?
Do they sleep on their side?
-No, dormono a pancia in giù.
No, they sleep on their stomach.

Using the above examples as clues, how would you say:  "We sleep on our side" ? ("We" is "noi", review subject pronouns if needed in: How Italian Verbs Work)

[Highlight below to reveal answer]

Dormiamo di lato.


Here are some other regular in the present tense -IRE verbs:


sentire - to sense (esp. hear)
aprire - to open
offrire - to offer


Can you write out the present tense conjugations for each?  
Present tense -IRE endings in Italian: -o, -i, -e, -iamo, -ite, -ono; by ab for viaoptimae.com



I recommend writing out conjugations in 2x3 tables so you can refer back to them easily.  Make your own, or use Via Optimae's:

Italian present tense: -IRE verbs Worksheet, available on pages 8 and 9 of the digital Beginner's Workbook*: (with easily printable pages!)
 *not currently available on mobile devices, please try on a regular computer!

ITALIAN: Workbooks Beginner's Workbook, Part One, from Via Optimae, www.viaoptimae.com


~


You can verify your answers or look up the conjugation for any verb/tense in Word Reference's handy conjugator:
.Screenshot of Word Reference's Italian verb conjugator as seen on didattichiamo.blogspot.com.
The simple present tense is the first column of the first row labeled "presente."

~
The second group of -IRE verbs take -ISC- What does that mean?  You just add an -ISC- after the stem of the verb and before the -IRE present tense endings.  This is done for all of the subjects, except noi and voi.


So, to conjugate one of the -ISC- verbs, 'finire' in the 1st person "io", I drop the -IRE, add -ISC- and then add the "io" present tense ending "o."


finire-> fin -> finisc -> finisco How to conjugate -IRE verbs that take -ISC- by ab for viaoptimae.com

Finisco 
I finish

Finisco di lavorare presto.
I finish work early.


The same process is done for all the other subjects, except noi and voi which don't take the -ISC:



Present tense of FINIRE, shows forms that take -ISC- :  finisco, finisci, finisce, finiamo, finite, finiscono by ab for viaoptimae.com
The subjects that take -ISC- are inside the blue "boot."




-Finisci di lavorare presto?
Do you finish work early?
-Sì, finisco di lavorare presto.
Yes, I finish work early.


-Finiscono di lavorare presto?
Do they finish work early on Tuesdays?
-No, non finiscono di lavorare presto.
No, they don't finish work early.


Using the above examples as clues, how would you say:  "We finish work early." ? ("We" is "noi", review subject pronouns if needed in: How Italian Verbs Work)

[Highlight below to reveal answer]

Finiamo di lavorare presto.


Here are some other -IRE verbs that take -ISC-:


capire - to understand
pulire - to clean


Can you write out the present tense conjugations for each?  


Unfortunately, there is no way to tell if an -IRE verb takes -ISC- just by looking… You'll just have to memorize which is which… All the verbs in the image at the beginning of the post are regular— the ones marked with asterisks (*) take -ISC-.  Look them up in a dictionary if necessary and use them to practice!



Happy Conjugating!
Alex on www.viaoptimae.com


Want more conjugation practice?
Try these free online -IRE verb conjugation exercises:



Ready to move on to the next lesson in this series?
TRY:  La negazione - Negation


All lessons in the Beginner's Italian series:
  (1) How Italian verbs work(Intro to verbs & grammar terms)
  (4) Italian present tense: -IRE verbs — CURRENT PAGE
  (5) La negazione - Negation
  (6) Ogni quanto? Quante volte? (Adverbs of frequency)
  (7) C'è & Ci sono (There is & There are)

1 comment:

  1. Incredibly helpful. Molte grazie!

    ReplyDelete

See also:

Frasi celebri su Via Optimae

Frasi celebri su Via Optimae
Acque del sud (To Have and Have Not) original: "You know how to whistle, don't you, Steve? You just put your lips together and… blow."